The sun-bleached ruins of the “dead city” of Les Baux are carved into, out of, and on top of a rock 650 feet above the valley floor. Many of the ancient walls of this castle still stand. The Lords of Baux were notorious warriors and in the 11th century, Les Baux controlled about 80 surrounding towns. The fortress was destroyed in 1483 after having struggled with the French king and losing. It was destroyed again in 1632 when Cardinal Richelieu demolished the castle.